The Distribution of Congenital Malformations in Adolescent Pregnancies: A Single Tertiary Center Experience in Turkey
Keywords:Adolescent pregnancy, congenital malformation, infant
Objective: Adolescent pregnancies are more severe and dangerous for both mother and baby than adult pregnancies. Low birth weight, infections, intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, and death risk are higher in neonates of adolescent pregnant women. Besides, anomalies of central nervous, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems are also seen frequently. The purpose of this study is to investigate congenital malformations of infants born from adolescent mothers. In this study, malformations were grouped according to the systems.
Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 166 pregnant women aged 18 and under who had fetal anomaly were included in the study and their charts reviewed. Descriptive information about the adolescents and information about the fetuses and anomalies were recorded. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were calculated as frequency and percentage.
Results: The most common anomalies were the central nervous (40.5%), cardiovascular (15.8%), and urinary (10.8%) system. The anomalies related to the skin and phalanges, including the face, accounted for 8.1% of the cases. Ventricular dilatation (10,4%), neural tube defect (7,2%), and hydrocephalus (7,2%) were the most common abnormalities of the central nervous system. Ventricular septal defect (5,9%), pulmonary artery anomaly (2,7%), and tricuspid valve anomaly (2,3%) were the most common cardiovascular system anomalies. Intrauterine growth restriction (3,6%), pleural effusion/hydrothorax (3,2%), pes equinovarus (2,7%), diaphragmatic hernia (2,3%), cystic hygroma (2,3%), oligohydramnios (2,3%), polyhydramnios (2,3%), and cleft palate/lip (2,3%) were the most common anomalies among the other system and organ anomalies.
Conclusion: Adolescent pregnancy was partially associated with an increased risk of severe neonatal anomalies especially in the central nervous, cardiovascular, and urinary systems. Pediatric health care providers should have a low threshold for suspecting pregnancy in adolescents.
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